Influence of Furniture Appearance Design on Product Cost ——Taking the Utilization Rate of Upholstery Materials as An Example Abstract The main content is in the early stage of new product development, through the cost-oriented design method, reasonably select the design scheme, and control the product cost. Methods: Using three-dimensional design software, virtually simulate different design
Things You Should Know About Upholstered Dining Chair
1. Metal Frames on Upholstered Dining Chairs
Metal furniture generally contain metal parts in its structure. And the types of metal can be iron, Carbon steel, aluminum, stainless steel and so on.
Iron and steel products have a wide range of applications, whether it be office furnishings or outdoor settings.
Cast Iron is often used for outdoor finishing and settings like their bench legs and solid iron tables. It has the features of hardness, heaviness and general tough composition. So it’s fit for outdoor use. But it has a main disadvantage. That is, it’s a relatively pure form of iron that is susceptible to moisture and air corrosion.
Stainless Steel is used widely in most modern interior furnishings involving metal. It can be made into hinges, slides, supports and body pieces. Besides, it has a high tensile strength. So it can be used to make hollow tubes, which can reduce weight and increase user accessibility.
Aluminum is a kind of metal that has a light weight and is corrosion resistant. To make full use of these quallities, it is heavily utilized for stamped and cast furniture, especially in the category of molded chairs.
Metal furniture is among the list of popular furnishings, especially for outdoor decks and patios. But it can also be used indoors, like brass beds, brass tables, iron bakers’ racks and metal curio cabinets. What’s more, it’s not only sturdy but also attractive, making your home look contemporary. Just a good polishing can make it more charming and distinctive.
We consider metal frames as a fashion tendency around the world. Although metal frames are nothing new, they’re still popular in the contract market. That’s because they have certain benefits, as described below. However, manufacturers know it’s time to take these advantages and make a design feature from them. And it can provide function and desirability in one. They’re also available in luxurious finishes including gold, rose gold & now titanium. And that goes hand in hand with the trend for decadent comfort.
Aluminum Base Outdoor Dining Table Set
Benefits of using metal frames on Upholstered Dining chairs
Metal is the strongest material. Even its welded joint is as hard as the metal itself. Simple metal products also have the price advantage beacuse it’s cheaper than the wood equivalents. Furthermore, manufacturers often use plywood or plastic molded shells for metal legs as a cost-effective solution. Painted metal also chips less than painted wood and has a longer lasting finish.
In addition, metal furniture is also durable. For example, it can remain outside during winter and still look good when spring arrives. If under the proper care, it can last up to 30 years. Because most metal furniture is processed to be rust and heat resistant. It doesn’t need much maintenance.
2.About the Sponge of Upholstered Dining Chairs
The followings are the introduction of 4 types of sponge.
(1) Mould Foam
This foam is made of polyamic acid material, mixed with various additives such as foaming agent, pressing agent into a simple mold. And it can be pressed to different shapes of sponge by heating. It can be used for swivelling chair sofa cushion, back cotton, and some armrest. Besides, it’s also made of shaped cotton. At present, the material density is 55#-60#, and its elasticity conforms to relevant national standards.
The elastic hardness of sponge needs to change based on different parts of the product. General seat cotton has a higher hardness and bigger density, then the back cotton, last the pillow cotton.
Mould Foam Cushion
The material is foamed with polyether, like bread foamed. The foamed cotton is like a square loaf of bread. After slicing the cotton with a slicer, we can adjust its thickness according to different requirements. The foamed cotton can also adjust the softness and hardness. The density of base cotton generally is 25-28kg/m5, while others is 20-22kg/m3.
Sponge hardness and density is directly related, but it’s also related to different additives formula. Therefore, in this industry we divide it into high elastic, grey super, black grey super, soft cotton. Product design and use should carry on the reasonable and scientific collocation based on different modeling and structure. We generally divide it into three parts with different elasticity, density of sponges.
Sponge is a kind of fireproof sponge material, which is actually foam before. Fire agent, like chlorine, bromine is added in the material formula to produce smoke extinguishing when sponge is on fire. And it plays the role of flame retardant.
(3) Rubber Sponge
Sponge is a kind of foam, its main material is natural latex raw material foam. It has the characteristic of rubber with a good elasticity and good resilience. Besides, it won’t be out of shape. However, the price isn’t inexpensive, 3-4 times higher than the foam cotton.
The prices of above 3 types of cotton are sorted from high to low: rubber cotton, shaped cotton, foam cotton.
(4) Recycled Foam
Recycled foam is actually a kind of broken sponge material. It’s a universal sponge treatment method. Because it can reduce the production cost.
The knowledge about sponge you must know when buying and selling furniture
The two technical indicators of sponge are: density and rebound index. The higher the density and the quality is, the higher the price.
A good sponge has good elasticity and high recoverability. What’s more, it’s not easily damaged. The poor sponges sank after sitting for a year or two and broke.
# How to know the quality of sponge?
(1) Surface: For the general sponge, the more delicate the surface, the smaller the pores, the better.
(2) Touch:Fluffy sponge has abetter resilience, while the stiff sponge has a inferior one.
(3) Temperature: Generalsponges has a little smell under the damp condition.
(4) Tear strength: A good sponge has a high tearresistance. Generally, the sofa cushion willsink about 10 cm after the sitting.
Normally, a spring is added to the seat cushion to increase the resilience and durability of the sofa. Because that can enhance the life span of the sofa.
The service life of the sofa actually depends on the sponge quality.
# The Standard Density of Sponge
There are 3 types of frequently used sponge classified by their structure. They are high-density sponges, medium-density sponges and low density sponges.
According to the interpretation of the national customs department, the high-density is ≥45. The medium-density is between 45 and 18. And the low-density islower than 18.
In general, the hardness of high density sponge is also high. But there maybe some have been added with super soft assistant. And the assistant can make the sponge super soft. Then, it can be used to make sound-absorbing cotton, sofa cushion, soft package material.
The hardness degree of sponge of same density may also different. Medium and low-density sponges are used as general protective materials. While high-density sponge, often used to do sound absorbent cotton, sofa cushions, soft bags and other materials.
The sponge density of sofa cushion commonly is controlled at 35, with the specification of soft, hard, ultra-soft. Commonly controll the sponge density of mattress at 22. High density sponges are full with many holes, but they has a poor performance of water absorption.
3. Furniture Regulations in the European Union
Requirements of EN 12520:2015 for domestic seating – Strength, Durability and Safety
This European Standard emphasizes the safety, strength and durability of all types of domestic seating for adults is the minimum requirement. It does not apply to ranked seating, seating for non-domestic use, office work chairs, office visitors chairs, chairs for educational institutions, outdoor seating and to links for linked seating for which European Standards exist. Besides, It doesn’t request the durability of upholstery materials, castors, reclining and tilting mechanisms and seat height adjustment mechanisms. The tests are based on use by persons weighing up to 110 kg. What’s more, it also doesn’t request the electrical safety, the resistance to ageing, degradation, flammability and ergonomics.
Chairs are the most frequently used furniture. Several chair testing standards have been issued to classified the chairs as domestic use and non domestic use such as visitor chairs.
Chairs should be in accordance with the safety, strength and durability requirements.
4. Know About Upholstery from Fabric to Leather
Types of Upholstery Fabric
Natural fabrics are made from the fibers of plants or animals.
Chenille’s soft surface pile inspired its name. Its extra weft threading gives it a distinctive nap. This casual fabric is a kind of great material for comfortable pieces like oversized recliners, sofas, papasans, and children’s furniture. Besides, it can also do great things with printed side chairs and traditional accent seats. Chenille may take natural fibers or synthetics like rayon as raw materials.
Cotton furniture upholstery is typically a blend. It’s a kind of fashionable and breathable natural fiber combined with polyester, linen, nylon, etc. Because that can increase the texture, strength and resistance to soiling and wrinkling.The best-quality cotton blends will generally contain about 45% to 60% cotton.
Jute is a natural fiber mainly produced in India and Bangladesh. And it’s traditionally used for rope and matting.Though prone to wrinkling, it’s an excellent material for modern rustic accent pieces such as an ottoman. And it’s a somewhat rougher texture that matches well with wood and/or leather.
Leather upholstery is different greatly in quality and price, which depends on its processing and grade.
- Full-grain leather: it’s made fromthe whole animal hide rather than layers. And we can still see the natural marks or imperfections on it. This is the thickest, highest-quality leather.
- Top-grain leather: the strong top layers of the animal hide is its raw material. And it’s thesecond best leather in quality.
- Corrected-grain leather: it can be processed to remove defects.And then use an imitation grain to make the appearance uniform.
- Split leather: Split leather consists of the underside or drop split of the hide. With bycast/bicast leather, an artificial surface layer is laminated to the surface.
Linen is made from flax, which is an extremely strong natural textile fiber. It has a excellent durability and natural resistance for moths, pilling and abrasion. Because it is smooth, soft and naturally lustrous. It will have a greater elasticity if blended with cotton. Neatly tailored pieces such as parsons chairs, traditional dining chairs, and tufted arm chairs offer a great look for linen.
Silk has a comfortable and soft touch. And it needs people’s great care to prevent it from staining. Silk is sometimes supplemented with cotton to increase weight and durability. Besides, it is available in both natural and synthetic forms. You must think carefully about where to place a silk upholstered piece. Because it may fade under the sunlight.
Velvet is a luxurious woven fabric. The thick and short pile is its distinctive feature. Such a material can be made from natural or synthetic fibers and differs in quality and type. It’s relatively hard to clean, but it still stands out for its comfort, texture and rich color. And that makes it an excellent choice for dramatic pieces such as traditional button-tufted headboards and swanky accent chairs.
It comes from animal hair, which is a durable choice for upholstery fabric. Nowadays, there is no pure wool in most sofas and accent chairs sold in the furniture market. It is mostly a blend of natural and synthetic fibers. As the addition of synthetic materials helps the fabric stand up better to wear. What’s more, easier to clean.
Synthetic fabrics are also known as engineered fabrics. They are actually textiles made of man-made fibers. Compared with natural fabrics, they tend to be more durable. What’s more, they are generally not easy to fade and be stained.
* Faux Leather
Faux leather is typically made from polyurethane, a more eco-friendly alternative to vinyl or PVC. PU is more breathable than PVC, and it’s also degradable.
Microfiber is actually a knit blend polyester fabric. It’s softer than suede and easier to clean by dabbing. Such a dense material is made of tightly woven synthetic fibers. Besides, it has the aesthetic qualities of real suede with durability and moisture resistance. People usually use this low-cost fabric to make the lounges, sectional or convertible sofas, and other comfy casual seats with a contemporary style.
Nylon is a kind of synthetic fiber, strong and durable. It’s typically easy to maintain and anti-wrinkle.
Olefin, a manmade material, is manufactured from melting down plastic pellets. Any desired color is added and the resulting threads are then woven together. Because the colors aren’t added to the surface but are baked in. Olefin can hold its color and be cleaned with bleaches. It’s great for upholstery.
Polyester is a high-performance synthetic fabric. And it does its best work blended with natural materials like cotton and wool. Polyester blends has the following advantages: excellent strength, easy cleaning, and resistance to fading, wrinkling, and abrasion — and less pilling, in the case of polywool blends.
This cellulose-based material was developed to mimic fabrics like cotton and linen. It’s commonly blended with other types of threads to create a mixed material that’s appropriate for upholstery.
5. Guide for Dining Chair Installation and Disassembly
Problems definitely will occur in the chairs we use, like demolition when moving. Therefore, we must learn some basic knowledge about the dismantlement of the dining chairs. This guide will introduce it to you, so please read carefully.
To assemble and disassemble an dining chair, we must first know about the constituent of chair. Most dining chairs people currently use are with chair legs, chassis, seat, back, armrest. In addition, ones of new styles like our F597, F568P/Z, F577P/Z Dining Chair will be with air pole and casters. Once you master the steps, you will think the actual assembly and dis-assembly are not complicated.
# How to install dining chair?
Having known the different parts of the chair, we can begin assembling. It’s recommended to install from bottom to top, starting with base. If the chair has any air pressure rod and casters, then casters first.
(1) First, install the casters one by one to the chair feet. Afterthat, installthe chair feet. Then, place the air pressure rod vertically into the centre of the chair feet.
(2) Fixed the chassis to the seat with screws.
(3) Finally, installthe armrest and headrest if any.
Compared with the chairs installation, the disassembly can be more difficult. Because the prolonged use of the gas rod and the foot of the chair will starve and die. Therefore, only disassemble it if it’s particularly necessary. And you should pay attention to safety when removing.
As for the other parts of the chair, loosen the screws step by step following the installation order. It’s more difficult to remove when dis-assembling the seat and air lever and separating the air pressure lever and the chair foot.
The steps of removing the base:
- separate the back of the chair
- raise the air pressure stick to the highest level
- grab the seat cushion with one hand, press the lifting paddle with the other
- shake it a few times to remove it
After disassembling the air pressure rod and separating the base and the air pressure rod, we can remove the air pressure rod. First, put the chair feet upside down. And it’s best to smash it out with a rubber hammer. If there is no rubber hammer, use a wooden board to pad it.
6. Top Problems with Upholstered Dining Furniture
Before buying, it’s important to consider what problems may occur with even the most well-made chairs. Here’s the list of problems and the corresponding solutions.
Problem 1: Your fabric looks differently at night and during the day. The new fabric sent to your home looks not the same as in the store.
Cause: The fluorescent lights are very likely to affect your visual sense. So you may not know its exact look under the daylight.
Solution: Borrow a swatch for a night if possible. And compare it to your wall color. Then, observe its color changes under different lighting conditions.
Problem 2: The Upholstered Dining Chair gets dirty.
Cause: Anythings like ice cream spilt by your children, greasy heads and dirty hands can get your dining chair dirty.
Solution: Give a regular and professional upkeep to your dining chair at least every two or three years. For smaller, more isolated stains, ask the Design Consultant what they recommend – many will have a preference for stain removers.
Problem 3: The solid fabric is wrinkling.
Solid fabric is very much in vogue these days. It’s beautiful, but there’s a disadvantage. That is, your solid fabric can’t hide wrinkles. In fact, you may have never realized that upholstered fabric wrinkles because your sofa has always had patterned fabric.
Solution: Use a handheld steamer. And steamers over irons are better for they are much gentler.
Problem 4: The sunlight is bleaching your furniture.
Unless you buy furniture with UV-resistant fabric like Sunbrella or Crypton, direct sunlight will bleach your couch. Sadly, there’s nothing you can do to fix that but to avoid that.
Prevention: Move your sofa away from the windows or close the blinds when you are not home. Purchase the right fabric for your sofa, so that you can avoid this problem from the start.
Problem 5: The dining seat gradually breaks in.
Actually, it’s very common to see the cushions of your sofa seat sink and the fabric loosen slightly as time goes by.
Solution: Just fluff up your cushions to the down from flattening out.
Problem 6: The fiber may get some pilling.
The fabric may become covered in very small balls bacause some friction. Some fabrics claim to be pill-resistant like Ultrasuede. However, it’s can’t keep the same after a lot of use. It will get worn-out someday.
Solution: Just shave away the fuzz with an eletric shaver in a gentle way would be great. Then, use some light vacuuming.
7. The Things You Need to Know About Preparing Furniture for International Shipping
Ocean freight shipping is the most recommended modes of transportation for shipping furniture internationally. Because it’s very economical. Air freight, though the fastest, is extremely expensive, especially with high-volume shipments like furniture.
In this article, we will introduce step by step how to properly prepare furniture for transportation. Then, we offer you tips and tricks on how to keep your furniture travels safe and protected.
Ship furniture with LCL or FCL
First, you need to make a choice between shipped via Less-than Container Load (LCL) shipping or a Full Container Load (FCL) shipping. And for this, we recommend the following guidelines:
Choose LCL shipping if you have a relatively low volume of furniture (2m3 ~13m3). And consider FCL shipping if the following situations occur:
- The volume is over 14m3
- The volume takes up more than 10 pallets or is hard to palletize, like sofas, mattresses or other plushy itemsand so on.
# How to pack your furniture for shipping?
If you are shipping detachable furniture, you should compact them into boxes and stack them on pallets.This will make the handling easy. What’s more, it can help to reduce the overall volume and therefore the transportation cost.
(1) Disassemble as far as possible to the smallest unit
Whether it is a chair, a bed frame or a cabinet, all can be disassembled into the smallest parts. Then put all screws and knobs in ZIPlock bags.
(2) Cover sharp corners
Use foam wrap, bubble wrap, or any protective material that can cover all sharp edges. It isn’t uncommon for the goods to move suddenly and change during shipping. And the last thing you have to consider is scratches on the furniture or worse, dents on the furniture.
(3) Wrap each part separately
Individually wrap each dismantled part and unit. Stack them in an orderly manner in your box. And the space between them should be as small as possible to keep them fixed. Fill the empty spaces with packing materials or fillers.
(4) Seals and label
After filling the box, seal it with tape, especially the slits of the box. You may also consider wrapping the entire box several times with stretch foil. Label the name and information of the corresponding shipper and consignee on your box, as well as handling instructions such as “fragile” ** or “this way up”.
**Please note that inland transportation may be higher for items marked “Fragile”. Besides, these items are subject to different insurance provisions.
(5) Number your boxes
Label a number on each box to indicate its order relative to the total number of boxes storing furniture. If you are shipping furniture for an international move, this can help you organize your furniture. For example, boxes 1 to 10 contain kitchen supplies. It also makes it easier to notice lost boxes.
8. How to Estimate the Cost of Furniture?
The cost of furniture (or any finished product) has only two direct components. That is labor and materials. Both depend largely on from where you source.
The unit of solid wood furniture is cubic feet, while the sheet furniture is square feet.
Therefore, assume that a typical coffee table consumes 1 cubic foot of material. Then, the cost will vary depending on the type of wood used. The cost of pine is lower than that of teak.
If the wardrobe consumes 3 sheets of 18mm plywood, 2 sheets of 12mm plywood and 1 sheet of 6mm plywood, then the cost will depend on the quality of the plywood used. The cost of building with non-commercial-non-mr grade ply will be lower than commercial grade-mr ply. So is the durability.
Although calculating sheet good furniture is fairly easy. Typically, you multiply the market exchange rate by the surface square foot of the wardrobe. Depending on the material you choose, the current ratio of the area is between 1050 Inr/sqft and 1500 Inr/sqft. Therefore, a standard 6X3 feet wardrobe (standard depth of 22 inches) will cost 18X the market price.
It includes materials + labor + transportation. Depending on the ratio you choose, high quality (specifically, there will be a difference between its grade and quality) materials will be used.
9.Store Furniture Correctly
(1) Investigate your storage options.
It may be a great cost for furniture storage. Do you keep it for a long time? Or do you plan to sell furniture and buy the new one when the time comes?
When storing furniture, it’s very important to protect the furniture from the influence from bad weather. If you plan to store the furniture for long, you may want a climate-controlled storage unit.
Climate control will keep your valuable furniture pieces from moisture and changing temperatures (plus keep the temperature pleasant when you visit). Items like wooden furniture, instruments, antiques, and sofas with delicate fabrics will be safe in this type of unit.
However, there are other ways to protect furniture. The most important is to make sure everything is clean, dry and well protected.
(2) Clean all items thoroughly.
Some cleaning tips for storing furniture:
For wooden or plastic furniture, use mild soap and water. Especially for wooden pieces and antiques, please use a wood cleaner (such as Murphy Oil Soap) to protect the existing wood paint.
In addition, use fabric or upholstery cleaner to clean fabric items like couches or seat cushions. Then, make sure that everything is completely dry before you start packing it up.
Polish any metal sections with a polishing cloth and metal cleaner. This step will help eliminate any existing oxidation and delay the build-up of dirt.
Maybe many people exactly don’t know the correct way to store furniture in a storage unit. But with these steps, you can keep and protect furniture for generations.
(3) Take everything apart.
Before moving your furniture, dismantle all possible items, including desks, chairs and so on. This extra step can make the packing much easier for your truck and self storage unit. Besides, it will also reduce the possibility of cracks or any scratches.
Put all screws, bolts, Allen wrenches, and other small items in a labeled baggie. Then, store the baggie alongside the according furniture piece.
(4) Wrap furniture for long-term storage.
Before storage, everything must be completely covered including the floor. And remember to lay down thick plastic sheeting on the floor. Because it can prevent moisture from the floor from seeping into the furniture. If you aren’t in a climate-controlled space, then you must take this step.
Don’t put furniture into an uncovered self-storage unit. To avoid the bad effects from dust and moisture, you can use sheets, blankets, drop cloths or plastic wrap to cover the furniture pieces. Don’t wrap the pieces with thick plastic covers. Because that will condensation and the furniture would eventually swell.
(5) Protect glass items.
We should pay great attention to the wrapping of glass tabletops and mirrors. First, wrap the piece with packing paper. Don’t tape the paper directly to the glass. Or else it will leave a nasty residue for you to clean later.
Then, it’s a great way to cover the glass in bubble wrap for some extra security. In addition, you can also put the entire item into a box. Better use a long and wide but flat box. Besides, the box should be similar to the shape of the glass itself.
(6) Keep furniture from direct touching to the floor.
If you store furniture without climate control, then don’t put furniture pieces directly on the floor. So they can be safe from being ruined. Pallets or cinder blocks can be used as an extra layer of protection against flooding. We must know that a layer of cardboard or a drop cloth is better than nothing.
(7) Don’t stuff too much inside.
Don’t overuse the storage unit. So that the furniture can be stored safely in it. Take some time to organize your storage unit for easy access. Systematically pack your furniture: First, start with the largest pieces. Finally working in boxes and small items in the end.
Remember to set up an aisle to access the back and sides of the unit. Try to keep your storage space clean and well-organized. So the furniture nad other contents can be well protected in it. The more things you cram in the storage space, the higher risks of knocking things over, bending pieces and causing other damage.
Furniture storage isn’t a complicated or stressful thing. All in all, using a overly large unit or one that’s not large enough is one of the biggest mistakes people make. You should pick out the proper size storage unit for the amount of stuff you have.
10. Furniture After-sales Service for Consumer
Many quality steps are taken to ensure your products arrive to you in excellent condition. However, it’s still very important to inspect the purchase upon arrival. Because there maybe some collisions in the transportation process.
Usual Online Purchase Return Policy for your reference
If you find the items delivered by Standard Shipping are damaged or have a manufacturers defect, you can follow the instructions below.
Situation A: Received the order by UPS, FedEx, DHL, USPS and the merchandise was damaged in shipping. Or you wish to return it. Then, please call customer care within 72 hours.
Situation B: Other issues concerning Standard Shipping orders, call them within 30 days after delivery. Then, they will either repair or replace the item.
Situation C: Not completely satisfied? The best policy is acceptance the return of Standard Shipping item(s) within 30 days of delivery. Before order, consult the manufacturer’s warranty, if any.
Usual In-Store Purchase Return Policy for your reference
If you purchased in a store, check the terms and conditions provided to you at time of purchase. Sometimes they are located on back of your receipt, so keep your receipt. Each store is independently owned and operated. Thus, they have their own individual policies regarding returns and exchanges. Please contact the store where you made the purchase. The store’s phone number is usually located on your receipt or on our store locator.
Please pay attention to the Returns for Mattresses and Foundations
Mattresses and Foundations may only be returned if delivered damaged or later found to be defective. You find your mattress or foundation is delivered damaged? Now, contact the customer service number listed in your emailed order confirmation for assistance within 72 hours of delivery. Defects discovered more than 72 hours after the delivery may be covered by the manufacturer’s warranty, if any.
Usual Return Requirements
The following situations have the right to get the full amount of the refund described in this Return Policy.
- All itemsare in new/unused condition.
- You can return the itemswith all accessories and parts securely packed in all original packaging. (unless the packing was removed as a part of the In-Home Delivery, in which case please re-pack in a manner to prevent damage during return shipping.)
Clearance Items are final sale items and cannot be returned unless they are delivered damaged. Please note, return shipping fees may apply.
The returned item(s) are inspected immediately upon receipt. Any appropriate exchanges, credits and refunds will be issued for the purchase price of the item(s). Taxes are refunded in accordance with applicable local law. With the exception of damaged or defective merchandise, shipping, delivery, and handling charges are nonrefundable. Also, return shipping or pickup fees may apply. Most refunds or credits are based on the payment method used at the time of purchase.
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